Scientific Publications
TGC (Transdermal Glucosamine Cream)

1. Penetration of Topical Glucosamine Sulfate into the Synovial Fluid of Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Nonrandomized, Open-Label, Single Dose, Bioavailability Study.
Kong, M. , Hashim, K. , Lin, P. , Coestesquis, G. , Xu, A. , Lebes, F. and Ting, C. (2019)
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 7, 76-90. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2019.711007

"...The mean glucosamine concentration in the synovial fluid of patients from the Test group (100.56 ng/ml, 95% CI 66.36 - 134.76, n = 117) was higher than in the Control group (17.83 ng/ml, 95% CI 7.42 - 28.24, n = 117) resulting in a significant between-group difference (p < 0.0001)… The results suggest that glucosamine can be topically delivered across the human skin into the synovial fluid using a proper vehicle."

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2. Glucosamine sulfate in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study using acetaminophen as a side comparator.
Herrero-Beaumont G, Ivorra JAR, Trabado MDC, et al.
Arthritis & Rheumatism. 56:555-567, 2007.

"...Three hundred eighteen patients were enrolled...glucosamine sulfate at the oral once-daily dosage of 1500 mg is more effective than placebo in treating knee OA symptoms."

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3. Long-term effects of glucosamine sulphate on osteoarthritis progression: a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Reginster JY, Deroisy R, Rovati LC, et al.
Lancet. 357:251-256, 2001.

"...212 patients with knee osteoarthritis were randomly assigned 1500 mg sulphate oral glucosamine or placebo once daily for 3 years...The long-term combined structure-modifying and symptom-modifying effects of glucosamine sulphate suggest that it could be a disease modifying agent in osteoarthritis."

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4. Glucosamine sulfate use and delay of progression of knee osteoarthritis. A 3-year, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.
Pavelka K, Gatterova J, Olejarova M, et al.
Arch Intern Med. 162:2113-2123, 2002.

"...Two hundred two patients with knee osteoarthritis were randomized to receive oral glucosamine sulfate, 1500 mg once a day, or placebo... Long term treatment with glucosamine sulfate retarded the progression of knee osteoarthritis, possibly determining disease modification."

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5. The Transdermal Profiles of Mediflex™ Glucosamine Cream in Mouse and Man
Lee CW, Li Z, Patel K, Olobo JO, Lee EJD and Goh LB.
4 National Congress of Indonesian Society of Rheumatology, Indonesia, 2005.

"...In this study, we (Medilynk Pte Ltd) had successfully created a highly stable lipovesicular system that allows us to encapsulate highly water soluble small molecules, such as glucosamine sulphate, at a salt concentration as high as 10% (w/w) in the cream....This is the first study to show the superiority of transdermal delivery versus oral delivery of glucosamine sulphate in mice and to demonstrate the pharmacokinetic of 10% (w/w) glucosamine sulphate salt topical cream in human. Our findings strongly suggested that high and sustainable level of glucosamine in the blood achieved via topical application of Mediflex™ Glucosamine Cream is able to provide enzymes with a sufficient amount of substrate for their cartilage regeneration and rehabilitation processes."

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6. The effect of glucosamine supplementation on people experiencing regular knee pain.
Braham R, Dawson B and Goodman C.
Br J Sports Med. 37:45-49, 2003.

"...Subjects were randomly supplemented with either glucosamine (G) (n=24) or placebo (P) (lactose) (n=22) for 12 weeks at dose of 2000 mg per day....These results suggest that glucosamine supplementation can provide some degree of pain relief and improved function in person who experience regular knee pain, which may be caused by prior cartilage injury and / or osteoarthritis. The trends in the results also suggest that, at a dosage of 2000 mg per day, the majority of improvements are present after eight weeks."

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7. Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate are effective in the management of osteoarthritis.
Hungerford DS and Jones LC.
J Arthroplasty. 18:5-9, 2003.

"... for the nutriceuticals evaluated here, there is abundant in vitro, in vivo, animal, and human clinical evidence of both their efficacy and safety. They deserve a prominent place in the armamentarium of nonsurgical treatment of osteoarthritis."

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8. Glucosamine long-term treatment and the progression of knee osteoarthritis: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
Poolsup N, Suthisisang C, Channark P and Kittikulsuth W.
Ann Pharmacother. 39:1080-1087, 2005.

"To investigate the structural and symptomatic efficacy and safety of glucosamine in knee osteoarthritis (OA)....The available evidence suggests that glucosamine sulfate may be effective and safe in delaying the progression and improving the symptoms of knee OA."

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9. Effect of glucosamine supplementation on fasting and non-fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations in healthy individuals.
Tannis AJ, Barban J and Conquer JA.
OsteoArthritis and Cartilage. 12:506-511, 2004.

"...The data suggests that glucosamine supplementation, with normal recommended dosages, does not cause glucose intolerance in healthy adults."

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10. Glucosamine effects in humans: a review of effects on glucose metabolism, side effects, safety considerations and efficacy.
Anderson JW, Nicolosi RJ and Borzelleca JF.
Food and Chemical Toxicology. 43:187-201, 2005.

"...In contrast to NSAID, no serious or fatal side effects have been reported for glucosamine....glucosamine is safe under current conditions of use and does not affect glucose metabolism."

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